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The Philippine National Heroes
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The Developmental of National Consciousness

Religious movements such as the cotradia and clorums expressed an inchoate desire of their
membetrs to be rid of the spanish and discover a promised land that would reflect memories
of a world that existed before the coming of the colonists. Nationalism in the modern sense
developed in an urban contexed, in Manila and the major town and, perhaps more signifi-
cantly, in Spain and other part of Europe where filipino students and exiles were exposed to
modern intellectual currents. Folk religion, for all its power, did not form the basis of the
national ideology. Yet the millenarian tradition of rural revolt world merged with the
Europeanized natonalism of the illustrados to spur a truly national resistance, first against
Spain in 1896 and then against the American in 1899.

Under General. Carlos Maria de la Torre, he extended Filipinos the promise of reform. He
fraternized with Filipinos, invited them to the governor's palace, and rode with them in official
processions. Some of prominent de la Torres supporter's in Manila were professionals and
and business leaders of the ilustrado community and, perhaps more significantly, Filipino
seculars. These included the learned father Jose Burgos, a spanish mestizo, who had
published a pamplet, manifesto to the noble Spanish nation, criticizing those racially prejudiced
Spanish who barred Filipinos from the priesthood and government service. De la Torre
abolished censorship of newspapers and legalized the holding of public demonstrations, free
speech, and assembly-rights guaranteed in the 1869 Spanish Constitution. Students at the
University of Santo Tomas formed an association, the Liberal Young Students (Juventud
Escolar Liberal), and in Oct. 1869 held demonstrations protesting the abuses of the univer-
sity's Dominican friar administrators and teachers.

The Liberal period came to an abrupt end 1871. Friars and other concervative Spaniards
in Manila manage to egineer the replacement of de la Torre by a more concervative figure,
Rafael Izquierdo; who, followinf his installation as governor in April 1871, reimposed the
severities of the old regime. He is alledged to have boasted that he came to the islands "with
a crucifix in one hand and a sword in the other." Liberal laws were rescinded, and the
enthusiastic Filipino supporters of de la Torre came under political suspicion.

The heaviest blow came after a mutiny on January 20, 1872, when about 200 filipino. dock
workers and soldiers in Cavite province revolted and killed their Spanish officers, apparently
in the mistaken belief that a general uprising was in progress among Filipino regiments in
Manila. Grievances connected with the government's revocation of old priviliges - particularly
exemption from tribute service inspired the revolt, which was putdown by January 22. The
authorities; however, began weaving a tale of conspiracy between the mutineers and
prominent members of the Filipino community, particularly diocesan priests. The governor
assertde that a secret junta with connection to liberal parties in Spain, existed in Manila
and was ready to overthrow Spansh

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